Whilst the SPaM framework is an original concept in its entirety it has been strongly influenced and shaped by the work of others. Most of these are referenced or linked to directly within the pages of the site, but are collected here for convenience.

Beckingham, Sue (2021): Modes of learning FINAL. National Teaching Repository. Figure.

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2015). Constructive alignment: An outcomes-based approach to teaching anatomy. In Teaching anatomy (pp. 31-38). Springer, Cham.

Cronje, J. C., 2020. Towards a New Definition of Blended Learning. The Electronic Journal of eLearning, 18(2), pp. 114-121, available online at

Fawns, T. An Entangled Pedagogy: Looking Beyond the Pedagogy—Technology Dichotomy. Postdigit Sci Educ (2022).

Freire, P., & Ramos, M. B. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed / translated by Myra Bergman Ramos. Seabury Press.

Koehler, M. (2012, September 24). What is TPACK? TPACK.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.

LeBlanc, P. (2015, March 2). The human-technology intersection: A Framework. EDUCAUSE Review. Retrieved January 22, 2022, from

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x.

Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

What is Digital Pedagogy? (n.d.). Hybrid Pedagogy.

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